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History of Bulgaria

06 Apr 2012

History of Bulgaria

Bulgaria is a very ancient State with a millenary history. It has a very rich history. In this small country situated on the threshold of Europe and Asia, have left their mark almost all great cultures of antiquity: THRACIANS, Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, Ottoman Empire. All of them had time to visit the Bulgarian land; they all left here countless monuments: castles, temples, tombs, mosques and art objects.

Archaeological excavations at the Bulgarian land, found traces of middle Paleolithic (40000-100000 years before our era). Arrowheads were found and with inscriptions which date back roughly 1 million years, that says on the residence here of man before the establishment of Bulgarian Empire.

First Bulgarian Empire (681-1018)

The first capital of the State was the city Pliska. The territory of Bulgaria includes today's north-eastern part of the country. To the East it goes to the Black Sea, to the South of the Stara Planina mountain range, to the West by the River Iskar, and later to the River Timok, North's border was the Danube.

Enslavement of the Byzantine Empire (1018-1185) is a period of hardship for the Bulgarian people. Bulgaria was ruled by an authoritative Vicar of the Byzantine Emperor, although little interfered in local affairs.

Second Bulgarian Empire (1187-1396)

The third Bulgarian Empire (1879 1944)

Western great forces, feeling the growing of Russian influence in the Balkans since the outbreak of the great Bulgaria, which relied entirely on the Russian Emperor, had decided to cut the new State. Bulgaria was taken of Macedonia, Eastern Thrace and its outlet to the Aegean Sea. The rest of the country was divided into two parts and remained under Turkish power. To the North of the Balkan Mountains were formed the Principality of Bulgaria and South-Eastern Rumelia governed by a Governor appointed by the Sultan.

In 1879, the Grand National Assembly (Parliament) adopted the Tarnovo Constitution, sustained in the spirit of the liberal tradition. This Constitution recognizes all major freedoms: speech, press, Assembly, and defended her private property. German Prince Alexander Batenberg, the Grand National Assembly, headed by a State which was confronted with great difficulties in the first months of its existence. The population of Bulgaria could not accept the Division of the country.

As a result of the popular movement of September 18, 1885, was proclaimed by the Connection of the Principality of Bulgaria and Eastern Rumelia. This occurred against the will of the great powers. Immediately after that, the Serbian King Milan declared war on Bulgaria. But regular Serbian forces invading the country were newly created Bulgarian army and volunteers. Treaty of Bucharest 1886, acknowledged the status of Bulgaria.

Bulgaria's recent history

September 5, 1944, when Soviet troops were at the Bulgarian-Romanian border, the SOVIET UNION declared war on Bulgaria. Concerted actions with armed resistance and parts of the Bulgarian army. The Red Army entered the country. On the night of 9 September monarchist regime was overthrown and replaced the Government of the Fatherland Front led by the Momentous, leader of the independent party "link." Referendum of September 8, 1946, declared the country a Republic. Its first leader was Georgi Dimitrov. September 4, 1947, beam Constitution came into force. After November 10, 1989, there were major changes in the political and public life. The country became a democratic path and transition from a planned to a market economy.

October 21, 1997 was enacted, which strengthened the policy of "full decommunisation", previously announced by the President.

Country sought integration into Europe and were concluded a number of agreements with the European Union. Bulgaria is a member of the NATO Partnership for peace. "

In January 1, 2007 Bulgaria, officially became the member of the European Union.

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